International Journal of Advanced Education and Research

International Journal of Advanced Education and Research


International Journal of Advanced Education and Research
International Journal of Advanced Education and Research
Vol. 6, Issue 2 (2021)

A study on socio economic impact of mgnrega on beneficiaries in Mandore block of Jodhpur district


Kshitiz Maharshi, Pramod Kumar Shah, Swati Vashisth, Kunal Vijay, Pradeep Kumar Agrawal

A study on socio economic impact of mgnrega on beneficiaries in Mandore block of Jodhpur district

Kshitiz Maharshi1, Pramod Kumar Shah2, Swati Vashisth3, Kunal Vijay4, Pradeep Kumar Agrawal5

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Business Finance and Economics, Jai Narain Vyas (State) University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

2 Associate Professor, Department of Business Administration, Govt. Bangur P.G. College, Pali, Rajasthan, India

3 Research Scholar, Department of Business Administration, Jai Narain Vyas (State) University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

4 Research Scholar, Department of Accounting, Jai Narain Vyas (State) University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

5 Professor, School of Business Studies, Sharada University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

 

 

Abstract

The current appraisal is in reference to MGNREGA scheme, operating in important block of Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. This paper has tried to study the cash related impact of MGNREGA on the normal weak, specifically landless, little and insignificant farmers. The evaluation relies on a fearless case of 60 respondents from Mandore Block of Jodhpur. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is an Indian government-sponsored employment guarantee program to reduce unemployment through guaranteed employment. The objective of this scheme is to ensure physiological and safety needs of rural people, such employment, food, shelter, property and health are fulfilled. The study evaluates the achievements made under MGNREGA and its impact on the study area. The study found that there was a dramatic change in the economic conditions of the respondents in the Mandore Block of Jodhpur. Coefficients of items such as mergers and related financial plans were not noteworthy; hence it can be stated that they do not fully or least contribute to the Change in demand. The basis of coefficients was taken from different categories such as gender, age, family size, course and storage size. The appraisal has made a few proposals in like manner for weaving invigorates inside the present MGNREGA Scheme kept up the necessities articulated by the workers related to this blueprint. In a layman says, we can say that MNREGA is an extraordinary program run by Govt. of India which will help people in rural areas towards their financial wellbeing, if it is well committed and executed with the assurance to the laws.

 

Keywords: impact of mgnrega, rural development, economic wellbeing, socio-budgetary conditions

 

 

 

 

Introduction

After the Independence we have seen many crucial and remarkable changes in India. Our most of the population still live-in rural areas and their upliftment is still a crucial issue and necessity for the Government. Many schemes and programs were initiated and implemented by states for their standard advancement. We cannot deny the role of rural area in our nation development hence, their advancement is not only better for the people live their but also helps nation to move ahead. Individual community engagement has highlighted the different strategies and activities of the common areas of the country to influence developmental services for people living in the valleys. An attractive program like MGNREGA carries significant criticism in youth areas such as Mandore that meet the best challenges posed by the cycle of thought-provoking total neglect from a consistent age. The development of Mandore remains a problem for strategists as the people of the region face challenges such as unemployment, anxiety and hardship. The introduction of payment systems such as MGNREGA inland has helped by empowering the energy cycle and should as needs to be named as assistance for the nation people in view of its bit of room figured out technique which makes the pros careful moreover as responsible for offering work to individuals. There is a making repeat of nonattendance of arranging, obviously hindered attestation, hungry individuals, mal-looked after youths, fragile pregnant ladies, agriculturist suicides, starvation passing, improvement happening in light of lacking business, unsettling, and in this way the disappointment of asset creation amidst dry spells. India (GOI) got a handle on the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) in 2005.

 

Research Objective

Development of a country relies more on the human resources. India might be a work plentiful country with serious neediness in provincial and uncommonly in ancestral zones. In the Mandore region the principal wellspring of vocation is agribusiness and work. As water system office isn't sufficient, rural land is a more modest sum gainful; The main objective of this study is to find out the usefulness and success rate of the MNREGA scheme in the said area. The experiment also investigates a change in the model of use of MGNREGA recipients. This study assesses the availability level of each household and applies the composition of food and non-food items. In this attempt the experiment was done in addition to researching ideas and inclusion of recipients about the program. In this investigation we also tried to look at the financial situation of the travelers.

 

Why Mandore?: Mandore is a place situated in Jodhpur district. The researchers of this paper are basically from Jodhpur district and nearby areas hence, they chose the area where it is easier to study the MGNREGA scheme. Although Mandore is an important block of Jodhpur and an ancestral area. Through the study of MGNREGA Samiksha report, it has been confirmed that the show of this program is amazing in the Mandore region. The record for human development in the Mandore region has always been very low. Mandore is where the migration of the biggest problem took place and govt. ensure that MGNREGA achieves its objectives.

 

Research Methodology

To hold any test, there is a need for a rational process and to find the most visible strategy for each test. There is also a need strategy for any test that establishes the determination of universal or individual shipping testing, the use of appropriate testing tools and processes. Satisfaction of test sites follows a process that will be used to investigate and report planning.

 

Research Design: -Research Design alludes to design or an outline of an inquiry proposition. It includes a progression of earlier choice that is taken together and gives a plan to chief a pursuit report. As various Rural Gram Panchayats will be secured inside the investigation, so it'll be by and large a self-announced review and exploration configuration to direct the examination are getting the chance to be an overview plan.

 

Sources of Data

There are two types of data to study any problem. They are primary data and secondary data. In this study, primary and secondary data will be used for data integration. Systematic research was used as an important source of data collection to complete the study. The poll contains various sections. Annual reports, Library research (articles, diaries, textbooks, information resources etc.) will be used as an optional hotspot for data collection.

 

Socio-economic factors for MGNREGA beneficiaries

Participation in MGNREGA relies on different credits which thusly are basically represented by financial elements. Financial factors, for example, age, sex-proportion and piece of the family, family size, monetary classification and social gathering assume a significant function in the overarching pounding destitution in the investigation zone. The financial states of respondents were investigated and introduced in the accompanying table 1

 

Table 1: Socio-economic Profiles of the MGNREGA Beneficiaries

 

S.No.

Characteristics

Category

Frequency

Percent (%)

  1.  

Age

Young (18-30)

4

6.67

Middle (31-50)

43

71.67

Old (>50)

13

21.67

  1.  

Gender

Male Female

19 41

31.67 68.33

  1.  

Education level

Illiterate

44

73.33

Primary school

10

16.67

Middle school

5

8.33

High school

1

1.67

  1.  

Family size

Low (less than 3)

5

8.33

Medium (4 to 6)

25

41.67

Large (more than 6)

30

50

  1.  

Economic Category

APL BPL

34 26

56.67 43.33

  1.  

Land holding

Landless farmers

6

10

Marginal farmers (=3.0 hec)

25

41.67

Small farmers (1.0-2.0 hec)

23

38.33

Medium farmers (2.0> =3.0 hec)

6

10

 

 

From the above data research, it can easily be seen that the level of female professionals is imminent. 70% of exemplary families. It shows that this program offers a great deal of value to women professionals. As indicated in the Program Policy, you are eligible.

 

Impact of MGNREGA on Socio-economic Conditions of Beneficiaries

The merged effect of additional work made by MGNREGA and the comprehensive advancement of pay in both MGNREGA and creating work had ended up essential updates in the yearly per capita pay of beneficiaries. The yearly piece is around 23500 Rs and the yearly per capita pay of the beneficiaries had widened. The relating changes considering non-beneficiaries showed a near model; at any rate these advancements were found immaterial. The changes in yearly per capita compensation and month-to-month per capita use on food use were same path in the two beneficiaries and no recipients. The rate increase in yearly per capita pay and month-to-month per capita use on food usage was fundamentally same by judiciousness of beneficiaries, at any rate for non-beneficiaries, the progression in month-to-month per capita use on food use was not as much as that in yearly per capita pay. Monthly individual use of beneficiaries was so widespread, that the corresponding changes of beneficiaries were not significant. Changes in non-food consumption per capita diet, individual assessment of total assets and annual clinical concept costs were found to be insignificant at a median level of 5% in both nuclear family programs. Youth planning was given top priority by the beneficiaries and a significant piece of compensation was needed for it. Annual use of carrying each child if there is to be an extended beneficiary event. Instead, segregation of non-beneficiary spending at any time was at a higher level than that of beneficiaries. The individual assets of the beneficiaries' experience have almost been expanded in 2019-20 over 2018-19. The relating changes for non-beneficiaries were widened. The degree of brilliant duty regarding beneficiaries had lessened in 2019-20 more than 2018-19 and again decreased in 2009-10, yet it has made record of no recipients in 2019-20 more than 2018-19, which is the main central change for the condition non-beneficiaries among the nine variables.

 

Table 2: Caste wise list and Gender wise list of workers in Mandore

 

Registered

SC

ST

Others

Men

Women

Family

Person

Family

Person

Family

Person

Family

Person

   

34498

91188

6538

17248

888

2221

27072

71719

46423

44765

Source: https://mnregaweb2.nic.in/netnrega/homestciti.aspx

From the above table it can be seen that out of the total number of families registered under this scheme only 18.95% are from Scheduled Caste category and only 2.57% are from Scheduled Tribe category. From the above table it can also be seen that out of the total number of persons registered under this scheme only 18.91% are from Scheduled Caste category and only 2.43% are from Scheduled Tribe category. However, Men and Women hold approximately equal percentage among the total number of employees registered.

 

Table 3: Registered workers with Aadhar Card and Bank Account

 

Total

With Aadhar No.

Verify Aadhar

Without Aadhar No.

With EID in MIS

With Aadhar No. and Post Office Account

With Aadhar No. and Bank Account

74131

35817

24270

38314

1111

683

30571

Source: https://mnregaweb2.nic.in/netnrega/homestciti.aspx

 

 

From the above table it can be seen that out of the total number of registered workers under this scheme nearly 48.31% are persons with Aadhar number while out of this 67.76% are verified also. This states the major problem as it has been seen that some officers claim wages of workers which even does not exist. Only 41.24% have their Bank Account which is also alarming situation as cash payment needs to be discouraged.

 

Table 4: Month wise data of persons and families registered under MGNREGA in Mandore Block

 

Category

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

January

February

March

Families

12019

12014

11007

9210

3872

2564

1647

1750

3336

5886

10206

6582

Persons

13592

13357

12162

10271

4346

2869

1846

2020

3600

6565

11673

7373

Source: https://mnregaweb2.nic.in/netnrega/homestciti.aspx

 

 

The above table shows the month wise turn-up of laborers and families for MGNREGA in the Mandore Block which needs to be encouraged at panchayats levels.

 

Table 5: Data on Households registered, Job Cards Issued along with photos

 

HHs Registered

Job cards Issued

Job Card Permanently Deleted

Workers Registered

Workers with A/C Nos.

JC with HHs-photos

Workers Photo

Total

Tagged as deleted

Total

Tagged as deleted

Total

Tagged as deleted

No

%

No

%

No

%

33290

3568

31668

3440

12

88165

16557

38837

54.2

24404

82.1

1576

2.20

Source:https://mnregaweb2.nic.in/Netnrega/citizen_html/demregister.aspx

 

 

The above table shows the number of Households registered and deleted during the FY 2020-21 along with the Job Cards issued and deleted during the year. It is good to see that 82.1% of job cards carry photographs which means that chances of corruption are very less and this scheme will benefit more number of persons

 

 

Table 6: Assets Created through MGNREGA Programme

 

S.No.

Primary Assets

No of projects under the category

  1.  

Drought proofing

5

  1.  

gravel road

18

  1.  

Individual work

2

  1.  

Nrega PS Mandore

6

  1.  

renovation of water bodies

26

  1.  

Water harvesting

1

  1.  

IAY Houses

13

  1.  

Construction of PMAY-G House for Individuals

5

Source: https://mnregaweb2.nic.in/netnrega/asset_report_dtl.aspx

 

 

The above table shows that the MGNREGA scheme helps in overall development of infrastructural facilities of the Mandore block along with development and improvement in socio economic conditions of inhabitants of Mandore Block. Major work includes Renovation of water bodies and construction of IAY houses.

 

 

Table 7: Responses obtained from the MGNREGA Beneficiaries in No’s

 

S. No.

Questions

Yes

No

  1.  

Do you know about MGNREGA's government program?

47

23

  1.  

Do you have a work card?

60

0

  1.  

Are you having trouble getting a work card?

0

60

  1.  

Do you have a bank / postal account related to MGNREGA?

60

0

  1.  

Are you involved in MGNREGA planning?

49

11

  1.  

Did you get a job that didn't suit you?

52

8

  1.  

If yes, how many days did you apply?

At least 15 to 20 Days

  1.  

Did you get 100 days of guaranteed employment under MGNREGA?

26

34

  1.  

Do you feel an increase in your income and expenses, due to MGNREGS?

44

16

  1.  

Has MGNREGA improved the status of women in your home?

52

8

  1.  

Has MGNREGA reduced unemployment?

55

5

  1.  

Do you get unemployment benefits?

0

60

  1.  

Will MGNREGS add general infrastructure and goods to your area?

49

11

  1.  

Does MGNREGA need to be upgraded?

60

0

 

 

The above table shows the responses of 60 respondents on various questions. Job cards are nearly issued to everyone and all have bank account opened under MGNREGA. However conditions of some registered workers may not have improved due to non-availability of full 100 days employment or nonpayment of unemployment allowance. All the workers feel that the current MGNREGA scheme needs improvements.

 

Challenges facing exemplary beneficiaries

The requirements for the recipients are presented in Table 8. Too many of recipients (35%) classified the suspension of salary divisions as a major barrier, followed by inaccessibility of ordinary work (18%), disturbing political outcomes related to MGNREGA activities (15%) and non-discriminatory planning for older persons (12%). It is a problem that has a profound social impact as the gift card is issued to the family and 100 business days are issued against the work card. A seemingly dangerous example is that healthy teenagers were abandoning their old guards and raising another family and older people were arguing over various problems. An example of a portion of salaries by banks or postal terminals was given as a violent cycle of 8 percent of respondents. Long lines in long payment periods, and the path to filling the minds of unsuspecting professionals were various problems related to bank or post office components. As indicated by a fragment of the respondents it ruins a working day. Different limitations related with the program were presence of defilement at different levels. Several respondents grumbled that a touch of the works done under MGNREGS were not of acceptable quality and were unreasonable.

 

Table 8: Constraints being faced by Sample Beneficiaries

 

Constraint

Defendants identifying the restraint (No.)

Interruption in wage compensation

21

Non-receptiveness of usual work

11

No momentous courses of action for old persons

7

Non-accessibility of work site facility

2

Occupation cards not working regularly

3

Political disturbances

9

Fierce example of Bank/Post Office payments

5

Corruption

3

 

Discussion and Findings of study

Nowadays, employees who work under MGNREGA's efforts fall into the trap of real-time misconduct such as age, gender, planning, family size and professional capture size to block relationships between the working days of the program and hence the dedicated components.

  • 71.67% of beneficiaries were properly converted followed by older (21.67%) and firefighters (6.67%) made plans. The dominant proportion (68.33%) of the beneficiaries were women and 31.67% of the beneficiaries were men.
  • Approximately 16.67 percent of the beneficiaries had completed school inspections, 8.33 percent of respondents had run the school on their right, and only 1.67 percent of the beneficiaries had completed school planning to plan and win a share of 73.33 percent of the beneficiaries were overlooked.
  • It has been pointed out that in general the vast majority of respondents do not have enough information to correct and thus keep the manual. The strongest proportion (41.67%) of the beneficiaries were out-of-farm farmers following smallholder farmers (38.33%) and 10% and 9.60 were intermediate and subsistence farmers.
  • Outstanding area (50%) of beneficiaries has a place with a family united by any measure 41.67% of the beneficiaries have a place and relatives.
  • The coefficients of categories such as the social issue and the financial-related category were not visible; indicates that speakers typically add a change within the variable.
  • Coefficients of variation such as gender, age, family size, Title and land holds size were very important.
  • Of the 60 respondents models 72% of respondents had a place where the age difference of 31 to 50 indicated that the demand for work in the country while 20% of respondents had a place for standard reasons.
  • Employee lifestyle has an impact on family size and financial-related provision.
  • The fact that the size of a family is very large, the cost of their family is much greater than that of a small family.
  • Family size results show that half the size of the family (over 6), 42% of the medium-sized family, is from 4-6.
  • It clearly shows that during this randomized trial half of the population does not have enough information about the human catastrophe and within the financially related indications show in the table that the APL respondents (above the suffering line) are very BPL (below the hysteria line).
  • Examination also shows that landowners who are most landowners are certainly not as curious about MGNREGA as they are related to their activities.

 

Conclusion

It had been found from the assessment results that MGNREGA had clear objectives to give openings for work to nation masses. The objectives of the presentation are to require care of equilibrium among the moved get-togethers of the overall people and to raise lifestyle. Through the study It had been revealed from the research that the program has caused a dazzling appearing in uplifting of the lifestyle of the people situated in rural areas by providing financial assists. Also, it had been concluded that the program needs better implement strategies, methods and even more clear and capable system to provide a suitable work environment to the needful people and to achieve task goals. During the chart it had been likewise viewed. We found brief length and passing progression among MGNREGA families. The refined people from these families maintained close to progression in a manner of speaking. Consequently, the ensured work in nation zones could totally decrease out-progression. MGNREGA can check trouble related improvement from fundamental locales. Thus, study saw that the wages got by female-pro at moved spot wasn't one of a kind identifying with the base MGNREGA wage. The study has shown that MGNREGA program a great part of the time keeps an eye on the issue of work necessity for a couple of the making rehearses related with plug wage rates. It has been seen that many farmers have left their basic work of agriculture for the MGNREGA scheme and leaving their land acquitted. It is a big issue and to resolve the matter government should change it the rules of MGNREGA that to give works to the person when the farmers are not involved it the agricultural activities like collecting or sowing seeds. Ladies from the rural areas are working efficiently in MGNREGA and it has contributed unbelievably towards the cash related fortifying of traditional ladies. With these central focuses, the MGNREGA also melds a couple of issues that needs to be sorted. First of all is that MGNREGA features an area inside the move of market pay of the workers. The compensation rate settled by the MGNREGA is very low as it is not enough to satisfy the basic needs of the person. Amidst the audit it had been other than watched we in like way discovered brief reach and momentary development among MGNREGA families.

 

Scope for Further Research

Studies are frequently led in various other districts of Rajasthan and various other blocks of Jodhpur. Another investigation can be directed towards the similar territory of examination, with the fuse of more enterprises and subsequently the more divisions, which may give more incorporated outcome to the theme and may enhance its effectiveness to the experts and the executives. To chase out the effect of authoritative culture on word related wellbeing, mechanical security and cleanliness, an examination can be conducted consolidating numerous socio-segment and bio-socio factors.

 

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